Yoga Therapy: Kripalu’s reading list

The following is the recommended reading list for the Integrative Yoga Therapy 800-hour Certified Yoga Therapist program at Kripalu Center for Yoga and Health in Stockbridge, MA. I am working toward becoming a C-IAYT, a Certified Yoga Therapist as designated by the International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT). There are SO many good books on Yoga and Yoga Therapy! The information on the physical, psychological, emotional and spiritual benefits of Yoga and Yoga Therapy ranges far and wide. The following is a good starting point for anyone interested in Yoga Therapy. If you are considering becoming a Yoga Therapist, these books will likely become some the most “go-to” books on your shelf.

The program at Kripalu is set up as eight modules. The following lists the recommended reading for the topics covered in the modules. The links below are to places to buy the books. Most go to links to Amazon, but a few will lead to other websites when the books are not available from Amazon or are only available from specific websites.

Module 1: Foundations of Yoga Therapy, Part 1

 Anatomy of Movement, by Blandine Calais-Germain

Mudras for Healing and Transformation, by Joseph and Lilian Le Page
Also available is the companion set of Mudra Cards, highly recommended!

Pranayama, by Allison Gemmel LaFramboise with Yoganand Michael Carroll

The Everyday Ayurveda Cookbook: A Seasonal Guide to Eating and Living Well, by Kate O’Donnell

The Principles and Practice of Yoga Therapy in Health Care, by Sat Bir S. Khalsa, et al.

Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, by Robert Sapolsky

Yoga Toolbox for Teachers and Students, by Joseph and Lilian Le Page

Module 2: Foundations of Yoga Therapy, Part 2

Every Bite Is Divine: The Balanced Approach to Enjoying Eating, Feeling Healthy and Happy, and Getting to a Weight That’s Natural For You, by Annie B. Kay

Yoga and Diabetes, by Annie B Kay, MS, RDN, C-IAYT, and Lisa B. Nelson, MD

The Inside Tract: Your Good Gut Guide to Great Digestive Health, by Gerard Mullin and Kathie Madonna Swift

Yamas and Niyamas, by Deborah Adele

Yoga for Depression, by Amy Weintraub

Yoga for Emotional Balance, by Bo Forbes

Yoga Toolbox for Teachers and Students, by Joseph and Lilian Le Page

Module 3: Practicum

No specific recommended or required resources

Module 4: Yoga Therapy Applied in Medical Settings

(Reading list to be expanded. Module 4 to be held in 2020)

Yoga Chikitsa, by Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

Yoga Therapy and Integrative Medicine, by Larry Payne, Terra Gold, and Eden Goldman

Module 5: Yoga Therapy Applications Within the Mental-Health Field

Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, by Robert Sapolsky

Shadows of the Sacred: Seeing through Spiritual Illusions, by Frances Vaughan

Yoga and Psychotherapy, by Swami Rama et al

Yoga for Depression, by Amy Weintraub

Yoga for Emotional Balance, by Bo Forbes

Yoga for Emotional Trauma, by Mary NurrieStearns

The iRest Program for Healing PTSD, by Richard Miller

Yoga Nidra: A Meditative Practice for Deep Relaxation and Healing PTSD, by Richard Miller

Module 6: In-Depth Anatomy of Asana

Anatomy of Movement, by Blandine Calais-Germain

Anatomy Trains: Myofascial Meridians for Manual Movement Therapists, by Thomas W. Myer

Mudras for Healing and Transformation, by Joseph and Lilian Le Page
Also available is the companion set of Mudra Cards, highly recommended!

Yoga Toolbox for Teachers and Students, by Joseph and Lilian Le Page

Module 7: Pranayama, Mudra, and Subtle Anatomy Applied in Yoga Therapy

Mudras for Healing and Transformation, by Joseph and Lilian Le Page
Also available is the companion set of Mudra Cards, highly recommended!

Pranayama, by Allison Gemmel LaFramboise with Yoganand Michael Carroll

Module 8: Embodying the Principles of Ayurveda in Yoga Therapy

(Reading list to be expanded. Module 8 to be held in 2020)

Yoga & Ayurveda, by Dr. David Frawley

Ayurveda and the Mind, by Dr. David Frawley

 

 

Yoga is an N-of-1 Clinical Trial

N-of-1 is the term used to describe one person as the sole participant in a clinical trial. Clinical trials are used to test new pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and innovative health-related techniques. The practice of yoga with a trained yoga professional can be akin to an N-of-1 clinical trial. The proof of efficacy is measured by how yoga makes the individual feel.

Yoga treats the person, not the disease. Large clinical trials are looking at the macrocosm of a disease or illness, which is great. It is important to know how large groups of people respond within a clinical trial. If an individual gets the placebo or the treatment and doesn’t respond positively however, they become a segment of a statistic. Yoga approaches health at the N-of-1 level. Yoga can address the microcosm (and super microcosm) of dis-ease in a person.

The N-of-1 idea is gaining some traction in a world where clinical trials may involve hundreds or thousands of participants. Large trials are designed to learn how groups of people will respond to certain treatments. New drugs and medical techniques are developed using the scientific method in these case studies. Clinical trials also inform the direction of the next generation of study and research. And big data in clinical trial research has become another technology tool for analyzing all kinds of detailed bits of information. Gathering huge amounts of data on individuals is the N-of-all method.

The N-of-1 experience is something we all do when we practice body awareness in yoga. We are trying to figure out how we feel and what makes us feel better. Body awareness is being aided by technology, biofeedback, and groups like The Quantified Self. Check out their podcasts and read about their conferences where they put out a call for N-of-1 papers.

For individualized medicine, the greatest measure of success is STILL how people feel after receiving the trial drug or treatment. Enter the N-of-1 experience. When you go to a doctor you’d like her to “practice medicine” in the N-of-1 model. That is, tailored to your particular sex, weight, age, anatomy, family history, medical history, etc. N of 1 = you, the real person.

One or a thousand, what the diff in a clinical trial? Clinical trials are typically designed to select participants based on specific criteria. For example, a clinical trial involving the effects of a treatment on people with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) might begin with selecting an even mix of men and women, smokers and non-smokers, people diagnosed with COPD or limited respiratory capacity, and individuals with no breathing problems. There might be a control group and the trial might be designed as a double blind study. The larger the sample size, the more compelling the results . . . sort of.

What if you’re not in the P < 0.05 club? That’s the golden line of 5%, the true test of statistical significance. In yoga we look for a wider golden line in our practice. Yoga is a “clinical trial” where the focus is an N-of-1 study where the true passing grade is closer to 100%.

Methods and resources for N-of-1 and N-of-All:

Design and Implementation of N-of-1 Trials: A User’s Guide. https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/topics/n-1-trials/research-2014-5/. Published February 12, 2014.

Gibson B. An N of One and an N of All: Personalized Medicine and Personalized Yoga. Yoga for Healthy Aging. https://yogaforhealthyaging.blogspot.com/2014/05/an-n-of-one-and-n-of-all-personalized.html. Published May 27, 2014.

Cirone M. How Glenn Sabin’s Book – n of 1 – is Helping to Change the Face of Cancer Care. Integrative Cancer Review. http://integrativecancer.org/why-glenn-sabins-book-n-of-1-is-changing-the-face-of-cancer-care-a-book-review/. Published February 6, 2017.

 

Yoga Therapy Sanskrit Terms

You say you want to learn some Yoga Therapy Sanskrit Terms? If not, I’d turn back if I were you!

I was trying to find more definitions for the Sanskrit terms used in yoga/yoga therapy required by IAYT (International Association of Yoga Therapists) for yoga therapy training. When you do a google search on any of the terms what is returned are pages from different yoga therapy program sites that are posting this same IAYT list! The list of these Yoga Therapy Sanskrit terms come from the IAYT Educational Standards for Yoga Therapists document. Finding something more than the short IAYT definitions, or finding more detailed information takes some real deep diving on the internet.

I’ve created this post to add more context and background around some of the terms on the list. The IAYT short definition is great but I was looking for greater understanding. I’ll continue to revise this post as I find more articles or references around the terms or their context, as it relates to yoga therapy.

The full IAYT Educational Standards for Yoga Therapists document is on the IAYT.org website. There is a ton of info in this document, and even a section titled, “Definition of Yoga Therapy.” Good to know! The document outlines the requirements for becoming a certified yoga therapist for the designation of C-IAYT (Certified International Association of Yoga Therapist).

Wondering why Sanskrit words have so many meanings? Me too! Maybe you’ve heard the story of the mind being like the surface of a calm lake? Then, when a particular disturbance comes along it creates a ripple in the surface of that calm, serene lake? The first pass through this list was like having Jack Black do a cannon ball in the pool at The Bellagio in Las Vegas, while trying to calmly read Sri Swami Sachidananda’s Yoga Sutras. My Las Vagal nerve went haywire!

Then, I read this article by Dr. Kausthub Desikachar. That was after ten minutes of Nadi Shodhana pranayama to calm down. At about the fifth paragraph he starts to riff on the many meanings behind the word “yoga.” Sanskrit words have more than one meaning and more than one layer of significance. Start counting. In yoga there are always 3 of this, 5 of that, and 8 of those!

The list below loosely follows the italicized terms in the IAYT Competencies Profile document for Category I: Yoga Foundations, and Category III: Yoga Therapy Tools and Yoga Therapy Skills.

Needing to have more fun? Check out my “Flashcard-style” learning game on Quizlet.com. Well, it is kind of fun if you want to just learn the short definitions: https://quizlet.com/_4dckmu

Yoga Teachings and Philosophy

Tanmatra – subtle element

Bhuta – gross element

Indriya – senses

Purusha – consciousness

Prakriti – material world

Pancamaya kosha – dimensions of the human system

Gunas – fundamental forces of nature (sattya, rajas, tamas)

Sattva – point of balance between rajas and tamas

Rajas – energy of activity, change, evolution, and development

Tamas – inertia, or a lack of movement

Duhkha – suffering/discomfort

Yoga and the Mind
Structure,states, functioning, and conditions

Drashtr – seer

Drashya – seen

Antahkarana citta – consciousness

Buddhi – intellect

Ahamkara – ego

Manas – mind

Citta Vritti – activities of the mind

Citta Pariama – structural changes in the mind

Vyutthana – mind’s potential for distraction

Nirodha – focus enveloped/held/restrained

Artha – cognition

Bhava – mood

Svabhava – inborn nature

Vasana – residue of experience

Samskara – conditioned pattern of thinking and behavior

Mudha – stupefied/dull

Kshipta – disturbed

Vikshipta – alternating between distraction and focus

Ekagrata – one-pointed

Vaishvanara – waking

Taijasa – dream

Prajna – deep sleep

Turiya – beyond

Distracted and disturbed conditions of mind, and their expressions

Klesha – affliction

Lobha – greed

Krodha – anger

Moha – attachment

Duhkha – suffering/discomfort

Daurmanasya – negative attitude/thinking

Sarupyam – identification with the contents of the mind or seer taking the same form as the mind

Antaraya – obstacles to progress in yoga

Framework for health and disease

Doshas – (vata, pitta, kapha, relating to the five elements earth, water, fire, air, space)

Vata – A dosha, relating to air, and space

Pitta – A dosha, relating to fire, and some water

Kapha – A dosha relating to earth, and water

Prakriti – constitution at birth (Prakriti as considered as dosha)

Vikriti – imbalance of the dosha currently expressed in the body

Ama – undigested food, emotions, etc. accumulated in the body

Agni – internal fire(s) and other contributions to health

Prana vayu – (as in the 5 Vayus of Prana: Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana, Samana vayus) the Prana vayus are the “winds” of prana, the universal energy and the energy that circulates through the body

Prana vayu – (as one of the Prana vayus) centered in the heart, the upward movement of energy

Apana vayu – centered below the navel, the downward flowing movement of energy

Vyana vayu – moves prana from the core of the body out to the extremities

Udana vayu – centered in the throat and head, a circular energy moving clockwise

Samana vayu – centered in the abdomen, associated with Agni, or digestive fire

Prana prakopa – disturbance of the vayu

Surya – sun

Chandra – moon

Brmhana – expansion

Langhana – contraction

Heya – the symptoms (as in vyuha model)

Hetu – the causes (as in vyuha model)

Hana – the goal (as in vyuha model)

Upaya – the tools (as in vyuha model)

Categorizing illnesses

Samprapti – pathogenesis, development/evolution of the disease, including but not limited to direction, intensity, onset, and duration and their influence on the ease or difficulty of healing and disease management

Samprapti – the Stages of a Disease

Shamana – short term; setting priorities: symptoms/pacification and purification/strengthening

Shodhana – long term; setting priorities: symptoms/pacification and purification/strengthening

Range of yoga practices

Asana – yogic postures of the body

Pranayama – yogic breathing practices, regulated breathing

Bhavana – visualization (meditation and relaxation technique)

Mantra – recitation (meditation and relaxation technique)

Nyasa – placing hands on various part of the body, combined with mantra (meditation and relaxation technique, ritualized)

Mudra – hand gestures (meditation and relaxation technique, ritualized)

Vihara – lifestyle modifications

Tish Ganey offers Advanced Therapeutic Yoga at Take Me To The River Yoga studio. The yoga therapy components of Tish’s practice are based on her enrollment in the Kripalu Integrated Yoga Therapy program at Kripalu Center for Yoga and Health in Stockbridge, MA., and are not derived from her status as an RYT® (Registered Yoga Teacher) with Yoga Alliance Registry. She intends to be conferred with IAYT Yoga Therapist certification in 2020 and offers Advanced Therapeutic Yoga as part of the practical portion of her 800-hour Professional Yoga Therapist training at Kripalu.

Yoga Therapy: a reading list

The following reading lists are part of the Module A and Module B Yoga Teacher training programs at Aum Home Shala in Miami, Florida as of March 20, 2018. They cover traditional and modern Yoga and Yoga Therapy topics, compiled by the Shala and its knowledgeable and skilled faculty.

Aum Home Shala is located in Coconut Grove and offers many types of yoga classes. Of particular interest are their generous offering to the community in the form of clinics that provide yoga therapy for a wide range of physical “dis-eases.”

The links on the book titles below go to Amazon where you can quickly and easily purchase these books. The Amazon prices listed on this page may vary according to the format of the book, Kindle versions, or audio versions that may be available.

Aum Home Shala’s Module A Reading List:

Blaine, S. Yoga for Healthy Knees: What You Need to Know for Pain Prevention and Rehabilitation. Berkeley, CA: Rodmell. 2005. $9.95

Desikachar, T. K., & Desikachar, K. The Viniyoga of Yoga. India: Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram. 2007. $125.00

Fishman, L., & Saltonstall, E. Yoga for Arthritis: The Complete Guide. New York: W.W. Norton. 2008. $19.95

Fishman, L., & Saltonstall, E. Yoga for Osteoporosis: The Complete Guide. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. 2010. $19.95

Goldberg, Michelle The Goddess Pose: The Audacious Life of Indra Devi, the Woman Who Helped Bring Yoga to the West New York: Alfred Knopf 2015. $16.00

Gorman, D. The Body Moveable: Blueprints of the Human Musculoskeletal System : Its Structure, Mechanics, Locomotor and Postural Functions. Guelph, Ont.: Ampersand Press. 1989. $150.00

Kaminoff, L., & Matthews, A. Yoga Anatomy-2nd Edition. New York: Human Kinetics Publishers. 2011. $19.95

Lad, V. Ayurveda: The Science of Self-Healing. Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Press. 2004. $10.95

McCall, T. B. Yoga as Medicine: The Yogic Prescription for Health & Healing: A Yoga Journal Book. New York: Bantam Books. 2007. $15.00

Mohan, A. G., & Mohan, I. Yoga Therapy: A Guide to the Therapeutic use of Yoga and Ayurveda for Health and Fitness. Boston: Shambhala Publications. 2004. $24.95

Payne, L. The Business of Teaching Yoga. Los Angeles, CA: Samata International. 2000. Price unknown

Payne, L., Usatine, R., & Aronson, M. Yoga Rx: A Step-by-Step Program to Promote Health, Wellness, and Healing for Common Ailments. New York: Broadway Books. 2002. $6.00

Satchidananda, S. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: Commentary on the Raja Yoga Sutras by Sri. Swami Satchidananda. Yogaville: Integral Yoga Publications. 1997. $9.99

Satchidananda, S. The Living Gita: the Complete Bhagavad Gita : A Commentary for Modern Readers, Yogaville: Integral Yoga Publications. 1988. $17.95

Singleton, M. Yoga Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2010. $17.95

Sullivan, M. The Anatomy of Yoga and Creating a Healthy Back with Pranakriya Yoga. Atlanta, GA: Marlysa Sullivan. 2008. Audio CD $14.95

Nalan, P. (Director). Aryuveda-The Art of Being (Motion Picture). India: Pan Nalan. 2004. Full length movie available on YouTube.

Desai, G (Director). Yoga Unveiled (Documentary). United States: Gita Desai. 2004. Two DVD set $31.00

 

Aum Home Shala’s Module B Reading List:

Davidson, R. J., & Begley, S. The Emotional Life of Your Brain: How its Unique Patterns Affect the Way You Think, Feel, and Live–and how you can change them. New York: Viking. 2012. $15.00

Doidge, N. The Brain that Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science. New York: Viking. 2007.

Ma Jaya Sati Bhagavati. The 11 Karmic Spaces: Choosing Freedom from the Patterns that Bind you. Sebastian, FL: Kashi Publishing. 2012.

Lerner, M. Choices in Healing: Integrating the Best of Conventional and Complementary Approaches to Cancer. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 1994. $26.66

McCreadie, K., & Hill, N. Napoleon Hill’s Think and Grow Rich a 52 brilliant ideas Interpretation. Oxford: Infinite Ideas. 2008. $11.94

Muktibodhananda, S. Hatha Yoga Pradipika = Light on Hatha Yoga: Including the Original Sanskrit Text of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika with translation in English (3rd ed.). Munger, Bihar, India: Yoga Publications. 2003. $30.00

Ornish, D. Dr. Dean Ornish’s Program for Reversing Heart Disease: The Only System Scientifically Proven to Reverse Heart Disease without Drugs or Surgery. New York: Random House. 1990. $8.99

Ram, B. Warrior Pose: How Yoga (literally) Saved My Life. Dallas: BenBella Books. 2013. $14.95

Sacks, O. W. Awakenings. New York: Harper Perennial. 1990. $16.95

Satchidananda, S. The Living Gita: The Complete Bhagavad Gita : A Commentary for Modern Readers. Yogaville: Integral Yoga Publications. 1988. $17.95

Satchidananda, S. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: Commentary on the Raja Yoga Sutras by Sri. Swami SatchidanandaYogaville: Integral Yoga Publications. 1976. $9.99

Shahar, T. Happier. London, Eng.: McGraw-Hill. 2008. $23.00

Trungpa, Chogyam. Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism Boston: Shambhala Classics. 1973. $15.95

White, D. G. Kiss of the Yoginī “Tantric sex” in its South Asian contexts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2003. $38.00

Sadhakas. Yoga Therapy in Asthma, Diabetes and Heart Disease: (principles, practice, scientific results). Santa Cruz, Bombay: Yoga Institute. 1987.